Industrial and Environmental Concepts (IEC) recommends proper subgrade preparation.  The pond subgrade is critical in draining liquid and venting gas for membrane liner systems.  The long-term performance of a pond liner system depends heavily on the condition of the prepared subgrade.

Most soils can be used for a subgrade as long as they don’t contain rock or materials that can puncture the liner.  Fine grained soils such as sand, loam and clay can be used for the pond subgrade.

The prepared surface should be uniform, well compacted, and free of sharp rock fragments, stones, tree roots etc. should be removed or covered with a protective material or geotextile. The surface should not have any natural or foreign object that protrudes above the surface of the subgrade.

Rock and aggregate in photo to be removed prior to liner installation.

The protective soil should be a minimum of (6″) thick and should be compacted. This bedding thickness may have to be increased depending on local site conditions. Another alternative for wastewater ponds is the use of a non-woven geotextile.

Smooth, rounded stones less than (2″) can remain within the prepared subgrade, however, these should compacted into the subgrade so they don’t protrude above the finished surface. The general rule of thumb is that all stones and rocks, regardless of shape and size, and clay lumps that lie above the subgrade surface should be removed.

The prepared subgrade should be compacted in accordance with design specifications and standard engineering practice. Generally, this means that the subgrade should be compacted to a minimum 95% of maximum dry density according to the standard Proctor test (ASTM D698). At a minimum, the subgrade should be firm and unyielding, and should be compacted to a level that permits the movement of construction equipment, liner deployment equipment, and other related traffic without causing rutting and/or deformation of the surface.  IEC recommends wastewater lined basin floors be slightly sloped to promote gas venting and drainage.

Compaction is especially important around pipe penetrations and concrete structures. In most projects, IEC can offer liner options for redundant sealing and recommendations around piping and structures.

Standing water, windrows and rock to be corrected prior to liner installation.

All ponds or lagoons to be lined should not include pockets or voids of any kind and should not be rutted or have high areas on the floor. In addition, the surface should be free of frost lumps and ice.

The prepared subgrade should also be shaped and graded to facilitate surface drainage both prior to, and during the installation of the lining system.

Care must be taken to maintain the prepared subgrade following completion. Vehicular traffic on the completed subgrade should be limited. Marks or ruts left in the subgrade by vehicular traffic should be smooth prior to pond liner installation. The subgrade should be protected from desiccation, flooding and freezing. Standing water should be removed so that the earthwork does not become saturated).

On projects that involve IEC, the subgrade will be inspected upon arrival at site. Our project supervisors will inspect the condition of the subgrade and will issue a “Certificate of Acceptance if requested . Corrective actions and activities to maintain the subgrade in a suitable condition for lining (including dewatering) are the responsibility of the owner or the general contractor.

For questions on lining or covering a basin, you can contact Dave Anderson at IEC’s office, 952-829-0731.

A novel approach was taken to cost-effectively close a 4.86 ha unlined industrial wastewater sludge lagoon in North Carolina and reduce leachate production. A floating geosynthetic cover system gave crews and equipment access to the lagoon surface.

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Geomembranes are permeable fabrics which when used together with soil have the capacity to isolate, filter, support, protect and drain. Geomembranes were previously used as canal and pond liners. However the current and largest application is controlling dangerious wastes. In several of these applications, geomembarnes are concurrently used with geotextiles or mesh which offer reinforcement or protection to the flexible geomembrane while at the same act as outlets for gases and leachates generated in certain wastes.

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Rosendale Dairy – Home of new digester
Located at the Rosendale Dairy, owned by the company Milk Source, the biodigester will process 240 tons of manure per day from the dairy’s 8,500 cows, generating biogas burned as fuel in power production and a pathogen-free and nutrient-rich waste stream that is land applied as organic fertilizer. Some will be used on the dairy’s own farmland and the rest marketed at a discounted rate compared to commercial fertilizer to the dairy’s feed providers for use on their land.

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Installation of Roeslein Alternative Energy’s biogas technology creates renewable
natural gas from Smithfield Foods Hog Production’s two million pigs in northern Missouri and takes sustainability to the next level.

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In 2013, the Blue Mountain Biogas Power Generation plant came on line in Beaver County, Utah. Owned and operated by Alpental Energy Partners of Provo, Utah – developers of alternative energy power plants – the $17 million, 3.2 MV plant is generating electricity from biogas provided by the anaerobic digestion of swine manure. A portion of the capital costs was eligible to be covered by a U.S. Treasury 1603 Grant.

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On any dairy farm, handling waste products is an important part of the producer’s farm management plan. Managing manure and other by-products is definitely a complex issue. Managing dairy wastes means protecting the quality of surface and ground water, finding ways to utilize the waste product and being “neighbor” friendly when it comes to potential odors emitted from these waste by-products

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IEC Announces Serbian Contract Ward From Belgian Firm, Global Water Engineering

Lakeville, Minnesota–(BUSINESS WIRE)—IEC announced their bio-gas cover technology will be installed at Molson Brewery in Serbia. IEC was issued the contract from the general contractor and engineering firm, Global Water Engineering,

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Construction of phase one of Roeslein Alternative Energy’s $80 million anaerobic digestion project is about halfway completeand on schedule to be operational by the middle of next year, the company reported.

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Industrial/Municipal Cover Systems

Industrial & Environmental Concepts, Inc. (IEC) offers a wide range of industrial cover products for a variety of industrial applications, including gas collection, rainwater collection, wastewater treatment, odor control, evaporation control, and bio-solids management.


Agricultural Cover Systems

Since 1993, IEC has been providing farmers with affordable and effective cover solutions designed to meet their needs and environmental regulation requirements. With ever-changing nutrient management regulations, IEC’s wide range of covers solve the toughest problems.


Cover Applications & Systems

Our innovative modular covers provide a solution for issues like odor control, heat retention, gas collection and storage, evaporation mitigation, algae control, animal control, and more. Whether you need a cover for industrial, municipal or agricultural purposes, IEC can help!


Pond Liners

IEC has the experience to handle any geomembrane liner project. Whether you’re looking for pond lagoon liners, tank liners, secondary storage systems, landfill liners, stud liner system, or liners for golf course pond, we can create the custom solution that works for you.